FLASHMOB A MILANO Non solo iniziative in Tunisia, però, per ricordare la morte di Bettino Craxi, avvenuta 19 gennaio del 2000 ad Hammamet: “Petali di libertà” è infatti il titolo simbolico del flashmob convocato per domenica [39] This strategy called for ending most of the party's historical traditions as a working-class trade union based party and attempting to gain new support among white-collar and public sector employees. “ Hammamet “: un racconto intimista degli ultimi anni di Bettino Craxi, durante l’auto-esilio in Tunisia. Craxi was the only political leader, together with Amintore Fanfani and Marco Pannella, to declare himself available to a "humanitarian solution" that would allow the liberation of Christian Democrat statesman, drawing heavy criticism on the so-called "party of firmness", primarily driven by the Communists. Craxism (ita: Craxismo) was and is according to some extant, an Italian political ideology based on Craxi's thought. This story and more details can be found in Contreras' autobiography. TUNISIA Craxi, in mille ad Hammamet per i 20 anni dalla morte. Il cimitero cristiano di Hammamet, dove è sepolto Craxi, è troppo piccolo per contenere la folla arrivata per la commemorazione. It is located in the south-eastern section of Cap Bon and is part of the Nabeul Governorate. Del Turco tried in vain to regain credibility for the party. The party shrank the size of the old hammer and sickle in the lower part of the symbol. In particular, he sought and managed to distance the party from the Communists, bringing it into an alliance with Christian Democracy and other centrist parties, while maintaining a leftist and reformist profile. [24], In 1966, with the formation of the Unified Socialist Party, a political alliance between the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party, Craxi became provincial secretary of the PSU in Milan, along with by the social democrat Enrico Rizzi and Renzo Peruzzotti.[25]. Furthermore, Craxi's arrogant character won him many enemies; one of his most condemned actions was blaming corruption in the socialist party on treasurer Vincenzo Balzamo, just after the latter's death, in order to clear himself of any accusation. Other figures were Craxi's mistresses Ania Pieroni, who owned a TV station in the Rome area, and Sandra Milo, who had a skyrocketing career in the state-owned TV channels RAI. In the 1st century, there was a settlement here known as Pupput. This did not actually happen because of the rise of Lega Nord and the Tangentopoli scandals.[81]. [73], According to Giulio Andreotti, Italy's foreign minister at the time (and 42nd Prime Minister of Italy) and Abdel Rahman Shalgham (Libya's Foreign Minister from 2000 until 2009), Craxi was the person who telephoned Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi to warn him of the impending American Operation El Dorado Canyon retaliatory air-strikes against Libya on 15 April 1986. Among the friends of Craxi's to receive smaller and larger favours, Silvio Berlusconi is perhaps the most known: he received many favours, especially regarding his media empire, and had a decree named after him ("Decreto Berlusconi") long before he entered politics. Notable recipients of his logistical help were the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) during Francisco Franco's dictatorship and dramatist Jiři Pelikan, in the former Czechoslovakia. Forse lo Stato africano della Tunisia su Craxi si dimostrò molto più “europeo” dell’Italia. The Socialists held a strong balance of power, which made them more powerful than the Christian Democrats, who had to depend on it to form a majority in Parliament. Italy's entire political class, including people like Andreotti and Forlani, was to follow suit soon. Il pudore nel film “ Hammamet “ Craxi received his first prosecution notice in December 1992. Craxi died on 19 January 2000, at the age of 65, from complications of diabetes. At the same time, the PSI increased its presence in the big state-owned enterprises, and became heavily involved in corruption and illegal party funding which would eventually result in the Mani pulite investigations. Forlani evasively asked what a bribe was while Craxi, after admitting to the charges brought against himself and other parties, stated that the bribes were "the cost of politics." Then it came under Spanish and Turkish rule. Bettino campaigned for his father and later joined the Italian Socialist Party at the age of 17. Against trade union resistance, the Craxi government reacted by abolishing wage-price indexation (a mechanism known as scala mobile or "escalator"), under which wages had been increased automatically in line with inflation. Io che azzannai il Cinghialone e non vidi gli orrori dei giudici, E Feltri esaltava Di Pietro contro il Cinghialone, Le lettere inedite di Craxi, così pregavano "il Cinghialone", L'attività dell'Amministrazione comunale da Cassinis ad Aniasi, La formazione di Craxi nel contesto milanese, L'era di Craxi, in 16 anni dagli altari alla polvere, Conferito il premio Salvador Allende alla memoria di Bettino Craxi, "PSI 1976: Comitato centrale al Midas e Craxi segretario", Bettino Craxi – L'intellettuale dissidente, Quella volta che Craxi mi abbracciò e disse: «Lo dobbiamo salvare», I quattro anni che sconvolsero l'Italia. That captain was later court-martialed and, when it became clear he would be sentenced to death, his own brother poisoned him. However, this did not stop the PSI gaining only 2.2% of the votes compared to 13.6% in 1992. [57], The revised concordat regulated the conditions under which civil effects are accorded to church marriages and to ecclesiastical declarations of nullity of marriages. The leader of the expedition, Adelantado de Castilla, lost his life as he tried to swim out to the Spanish ships and as the captain in charge of his skiff fled and ignored his calls for help. They were Paolo Bagnoli, Orietta Baldelli, Francesco Barra, Luigi Biscardi, Guido De Martino, Gianni Fardin, Carlo Gubbini, Maria Rosaria Manieri, Cesare Marini, Maria Antonia Modolo, Michele Sellitti, Giancarlo Tapparo, Antonino Valletta and Antonio Vozzi. [70] Craxi's decisive character may have been relevant in this resolution. At that time the Spanish name for the place was "La Mahometa". In 1963 he was appointed leader of the Milan Provincial Secretariat of the PSI and in 1965 Craxi became a member of the National Leadership. The PSI got 16 deputies[86] and 14 senators[87] elected, down from 92 deputies and 49 senators of 1992. [56] The Church's position as the sole state-supported religion of Italy was also ended, replacing the state financing with a personal income tax called the otto per mille, to which other religious groups, Christian and non-Christian, also have access. E così, agli inizi del 1997, per una settimana circa, Paolo Semeraro si trova a varcare il portone di Route El Fawara ad Hammamet in Tunisia, da … [74] Shalgham's statement was also confirmed by Margherita Boniver, foreign affairs chief of Craxi's Socialist Party at the time. The initial taking of the town was successful as the Spanish managed to climb the walls and open the gates but then there was an unexpected call to retreat - it could not be later determined where or how it originated. Stefania Craxi sulla tomba del padre ad Hammamet Pubblicato il: 02/11/2019 12:58 Il 'pellegrinaggio' ad Hammamet a venti anni dalla morte di Bettino Craxi … Ad Hammamet Gregorio Romeo ha incontrato alcuni dei partecipanti alle celebrazioni. Questions were asked about the so-called ENIMONT 'super-bribe' which the PSI and DC had jointly received and democratically shared. In December 1993, after his prosecution was finally authorised, Craxi was called to testify alongside Democrazia Cristiana party secretary Arnaldo Forlani before Justice Antonio Di Pietro. Si moltiplicano le iniziative in ricordo del leader socialista: è proprio la Fondazione Craxi a organizzare il viaggio del ventennale in Tunisia, "Hammamet 2020". Bettino Craxi escaped the laws he had once contributed to make, by fleeing to Hammamet, Tunisia in 1994; he remained a fugitive there, protected by the government of Ben Ali, his personal friend. [69], This move was supposedly dictated both by security concerns about terrorists targeting Italy if the United States had had it their way and by the Italian tradition of diplomacy with the Arab world. Finally, Craxism has led to the change of the whole of European socialism, together with Felipe González (PSOE), François Mitterrand (PS), and Helmut Schmidt (SPD), during all of the 1980s; In addition, along with these other figures, inspired the overhaul and the policies of Tony Blair's Labour Party, the José Zapatero's PSOE and the Andreas Papandreou's PASOK. Some of the students waved 1,000-lire bills, singing Bettino, do you want these too? Agnelli, Craxi e De Mita, Bettino Craxi, discorso sul finanziamento politico, Camera dei Deputati, 3 luglio 1992, Craxi, il ricordo di Berlusconi: "Mi manca, simbolo di dignità", Berlusconi, 20 anni fa la discesa in campo. The Christian Democrats accepted this compromise to avoid a new election. [34] On 9 May 1978 Moro's body was found in the trunk of a Renault 4 in Via Caetani after 55 days of imprisonment, during which Moro was submitted to a political trial by the so-called "people's court" set up by the Brigate Rosse and the Italian government was asked for an exchange of prisoners. It was eventually eliminated altogether in 1985. In July 1992, Craxi finally realised the situation was serious and that he himself was going to be hit by the unfolding scandal. [63] Rare footage of Craxi trying to lay flowers at the tomb of Salvador Allende has been unearthed from RAI's (Radiotelevisione Italiana) archives. Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (UK: /ˈkræksi/ KRAK-see,[1] Italian: [betˈtiːno ˈkraksi], Sicilian: [ˈkɾaʃʃɪ];[2] 24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000)[3] was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987. Ecco perché fu condannato, "Commento alla decisione della Corte europea dei diritti dell'uomo dell'11 ottobre 2001", Craxi, l'ultimo saluto. He chose a red carnation to represent the new course of the party, in honour of the Carnation Revolution in Portugal. [33] Firing automatic weapons, the terrorists killed Moro's bodyguards and kidnapped him. In the 13th century, walls around town were built and medina of Hammamet was built in the 15th century. He repeatedly declared himself innocent but never returned to Italy where he had been sentenced to 27 years in jail because of his corruption crimes (of these, 9 years and 8 months were upheld on appeal). [20], During this period he engaged for the first time in public speaking, organizing conferences, debates, film screenings, and in 1956 he became part of the PSI Provincial Committee in Milan, and leader of the Socialist Youth Federation.[21]. Even though Fanfani was a close friend and ally of Craxi, he did not participate in the swearing in ceremony, sending the Undersecretary to the Presidency of the Council Giuliano Amato. He believed that the collapse of communism in eastern Europe had undermined the PCI and made Social Unity inevitable. Bettino Craxi resigned as party Secretary in February 1993. [85] The European Court ruled in his favor once, in the case of wiretapped conversations illegally made public. The 100-year-old party closed down, partially thanks to its leaders for their personalisation of the PSI. During this period he was a strong supporters of the Organic Centre-left coalition, between the Christian Democrats of Aldo Moro and Amintore Fanfani, the Socialists of Pietro Nenni, the Social Democrats of Giuseppe Saragat and the Republicans of Ugo La Malfa. In May 1994 he fled to Tunis in order to escape jail. His father Vittorio Craxi was a Sicilian lawyer and anti-fascist who was persecuted by the regime of Benito Mussolini while his mother Maria Ferrari was a housewife from Sant'Angelo Lodigiano. This led to the constant formation of political alliances between parties keen on keeping the Communists at bay. [16], During World War II, the young Craxi was sent to the Catholic college Edmondo De Amicis due to his unruly character and to protect him from fascist violence in retaliation for his father's anti-fascist activities. It was carried out by six galleys, four from Malta, six from Sicily carrying Spanish and other Christian troops. [71] Craxi rejected the US extradition order and let Abu Abbas – chief of the hijackers, present on the plane – flee to Yugoslavia; the four hijackers were later found guilty, and sentenced to prison terms for hijacking and the murder of a Jewish American citizen, Leon Klinghoffer. [23], In 1961 he was excluded from the Central Committee of the Socialist Party by the new Secretary Francesco De Martino. This permitted Gaddafi and his family to evacuate their residence in the Bab al-Azizia compound moments before the bombs dropped. Craxi's funeral took place at the Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul in Tunis and saw a large participation of the indigenous population. Craxi never apologised, stating he had done nothing that everybody else had not been doing, and that he was being unjustly singled out and persecuted. [88] Prime Minister and Democrats of the Left leader, Massimo D'Alema proposed a state funeral which, however, was not accepted by Craxi's family who accused the government of preventing his return to Italy to undergo a delicate surgery at San Raffaele Hospital in Milan. HAMMAMET TUNISIA: CLAUDIO CORONATI COMMENTA VILLA BETTINO CRAXI INSIEME A SOULTANA ATTRICE PRINCIPALE DEL FILM BOUKIYOD DELL' EMERGENTE REGISTA MAROCCHINA FATIMA ALI BOUBEKDI In fact, if on one side the PSI under Craxi is required with a strong third-worldism, Pro-Arabianism, environmentalism and a modern welfare state system (typical of the modern left), on the other hand was strongly pro-Atlanticist and pro-europeanist and placed on a strong defense of territorial sovereignty (e.g. Ovvero il lungo e complicato esilio di Bettino Craxi ad Hammamet. In World War II, it became one of the headquarters of the Nazi general Erwin Rommel. La riforma della scala mobile, Il libro che racconta di Craxi e di quando tagliò la scala mobile, Il debito pubblico italiano, quando e chi lo ha formato, Gli accordi di Villa Madama: dalla Costituente a Craxi, Craxi al congresso del PSOE: "Obiettivo unità socialista", Sigonella, così Reagan capitolò davanti all’ira funesta di Craxi, Quella volta che a Sigonella Craxi rese l'Italia un paese sovrano, La Nato, Sigonella, Craxi e Spadolini. The PSI kept tight control of this advantage. [77] This caused the immediate fall of the cabinet and the formation of a new government led by the long-time Christian Democratic politician Amintore Fanfani. As mentioned before, during the "Mani pulite" period Craxi tried to use a daring defence tactic: he maintained that all parties needed and took money illegally, however they could get it, to finance their activities. Former Italian prime minister Bettino Craxi moved to Hammamet in 1994 as a fugitive. Most of them came from the left-wing of the party, as Del Turco himself did. ROMA – Perché Bettino Craxi è stato lasciato a morire a Hammamet, in Tunisia, nel gennaio del Duemila? Quattro gli eventi tenuti fra il 18 e il 19 gennaio. His defence was therefore not to declare himself innocent, but everybody guilty. Some bribes didn't go to the parties at all. Under Craxi, PSI moved from left-wing to centre-left, much to ally with the Christian Democracy and other moderate parties that formed a coalition called Pentapartito, which ensured a stable majority to govern. He led the third-longest government in the Italian Republic and he is considered one of the most powerful and prominent politicians of the so-called First Republic. [78], In the 1987 general election the PSI won 14.3% of the vote, a good result but less good than what Craxi hoped, and this time it was the Christian Democrats' turn to govern. "Sigonella crisis" American armed forces) and on conservative policies on issues such as abortion and war on drugs. [9][10][11] Craxi's supporters especially praised his foreign policy, which was assertive and often led to confrontations with the United States, on issues such as Palestine, terrorism and Craxi's close relations with Arab socialist governments. [7][8], Craxi maintained strong links with many leaders of the European left, including François Mitterrand, Felipe González, Andreas Papandreou and Mário Soares and was one of the main representatives of Mediterranean or South European socialism. It borders a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) and a Hot semi-arid climate (BSh) due to dry ground and hot temperatures in the summer. The last main turning point of Craxi's career began in February 1992, when Socialist MP Mario Chiesa was arrested by police while taking a 7 million lira bribe from a cleaning service firm. Thanks to its beaches, it is a popular destination for swimming and water sports and is one of the primary tourist destinations in Tunisia. However, upon coming out of the Hotel Raphael, where he lived, he received a salvo of coins that members of the Democratic Party of the Left and the right-wing Italian Social Movement threw at him as a sign of their disgust. Acquaviva, Gennaro, and Luigi Covatta. [12], Craxi was often nicknamed by his detractors il Cinghialone ("The Big Boar")[13] due to his physical size. [17], After the war Vittorio Craxi assumed the role of vice-prefect in Milan and then the prefect in Como, where he moved with his family in 1945. Ascesa e crollo dell'impero del CAF, Bettino Craxi, il riformista e la sinistra italiana, La storia del PSI. Bettino Craxi con il cameramen Augusto Arcangeli nella sua casa di Hammamet, nel 1999, durante un'intervista per la Tv svizzera 14 Gen 2020 Bettino Craxi nella sua casa di Hammamet, in Tunisia, nel 1999. Il cantautore napoletano è in Tunisia al raduno per il ventennale della morte del leader socialista. The property was built in 2016 and features air-conditioned accommodation with a balcony. In the 1994 general election, what was left of PSI allied itself to the Alliance of Progressives dominated by the post-communist incarnation of the PCI, the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS). However, he was able to consolidate power and implement his policies. The 2005 World Scout Conference was held in Hammamet. In 1984, solidarity contracts (work-sharing arrangements to avoid redundancies) were introduced, while restrictions on part-time employment were relaxed. Craxi's entourage was famously criticised by Formica as a "court of midgets and dancers" (corte di nani e ballerine), indicating the often ludicrous and immoral traits of a system based on personal acquaintance rather than merit. A few months later Bettino returned to college, first in Como and then in Cantù, where he thought to start the seminary. Hammamet: la città di Craxi Hammamet è una città della Tunisia, una località costiera situata a sud-est di Cap Bon, nel Governatorato di Nabeul, ed è la principale località turistica del paese. He outlined for a line of alternation between the DC and the left-wing, represented by his party, due to the close relations between the PCI and the Soviet Union. Craxism, although the term is considered derogatory today, was based on a synthesis of social democracy, socialism and social liberalism. Festival international d'Hammamet was established in 1964. Bettino Craxi, all'anagrafe Benedetto Craxi (Milano, 24 febbraio 1934 – Hammamet, 19 gennaio 2000), è stato un politico italiano, Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri dal 4 agosto 1983 al 18 aprile 1987 e Segretario del Partito Socialista Italiano dal 15 luglio 1976 all'11 febbraio 1993.. Gravemente malato, è accudito dalla figlia; quando il figlio d’un amico fa irruzione, se lo tiene caro – ed il ragazzo, a sua volta, non sa se odiarlo od ammirarlo. : Venezia : Marsilio, 2009. [49] However, inflation was often in the double digits. On 14 August 1605 there was another Spanish attack in which Contreras also participated but this time the result was disastrous for the attackers. [29], Bettino Craxi was appointed to the vacant position of National Secretary of the party, ending years of factional fighting within the PSI. [64], There is also evidence that part of Craxi's illegally earned money was given in secret to leftist political opposition in Uruguay during the military dictatorship, to Solidarity in the period of Jaruzelski rule in Poland and to Yasser Arafat and his Palestine Liberation Organization because of Craxi's sympathy for the Palestinian cause. There were 1200 men gathered at the beach trying to get back to their ships but the wind had changed and conditions were difficult. Featuring garden views, Résidence jinen garden, Avenue Bettino Craxi، Hammamet 8050 offers accommodation with a seasonal outdoor swimming pool, a garden and a private beach area, around 100 yards from Hammamet Beaches. De Martino, pointing to a new alliance with the Communists, was forced to resign and opened a serious crisis within the party. [48], During Craxi's tenure as Prime Minister, Italy became the fifth largest industrial nation and gained entry into the G7 Group of most industrialised nations. The judges in Milan were put under scrutiny several times by different governments (especially Silvio Berlusconi's first government in 1994), but no evidence of any misconduct was ever found. His revelations brought half of the Milan Socialists and Industrialists under investigation; even Paolo Pillitteri, Craxi's own brother-in-law and mayor of Milan, was investigated despite his parliamentary immunity.